Valid characters for measure names

05.06.2011 Hilmar Buchta

SQL Server 2005 | SQL Server 2008 | SQL Server 2008R2

The name for measures in a cube should be clear and easy to understand to avoid confusion for the end-users. However, not all characters are allowed for cube measures. Here is a list of characters, that is not allowed:

. , ; ‚ ` : / \ * | ? “ & % $ ! + = ( ) [ ] { } < >

Some of these characters are allowed for calculated measures although I wouldn’t recommend this as it reduces the readability of the your MDX queries (see below).

For example, you cannot give the name “Avg. Sales Amount” to a built-in cube measure (because of the dot). Also sometimes the end-users want to see the unit with the measure name and one frequently used notation for this is to use square brackets like “Utilization [%]” (here the square brackets and the percent-sign violate the list of allowed characters).

On the other hand, many special characters are allowed. The following characters are just an example of the long list of symbols within the normal text:

Ø © α € £ ¥ ® ™ ± ≠ ≤ ≥ ÷ × ∞ µ

For example, it’s quite common to use the Ø-sign as a symbol for the average and you can name your measure “Revenue Ø”. In order to do so, one simple way is to open Microsoft Word and use the Insert Symbol dialog as shown below:


After inserting the symbol into a blank Word document you can simply copy it to the clip board and then paste the symbol to the measure name:


The new measure name is also displayed correctly in OLAP clients like Microsoft Excel:


However, the special symbols might be more complicated to enter in certain situations where you cannot easily pick the measure from a list. For example, in MDX you also have to enter these character:


  1. select {[Measures].[Revenue],[Measures].[Revenue Ø]} on 0,
  2. [Dim Date].[Calendar Week].[Year] on 1
  3. from [OLAPSample1]

For this reason I recommend measure names that only consist of simple characters and numbers, for example [AvgRevenue] instead of [Revenue Ø].

But how can we help our end-users to see the measures in the way they expect them to see? One simple solution is to use the cube translation for this purpose (Enterprise feature, you cannot do this on a Standard Edition). Within the cube translation you are not restricted to specific characters, so you can also use all of the above characters, while still keeping a simple technical name for the measure.

To show this, I added some more measures to the cube:


On the translation tab of the cube we can now add the displayed names for those measures:


And as expected, Excel correctly displays the “translated” measure names:


Using translations for the measure names also gives the flexibility to change the name of measures if required without also changing all the queries and calculations that are based on this cube (all queries use the built-in names that are now hidden from the end-user). So, translations are a good method to add a façade to your cube’s measures while also adding some more flexibility in the naming of the measures.

Although we can now be very flexible with the naming of the measures, I still recommend to keep things simple. In general, the unit of the measure is usually clear from the name and the format of the values (for example a percentage value). In this case you should avoid showing the unit with the measure name as it is only redundant in this case.

The next post will be about handling similar measures in different measure groups of different granularity (for example revenue as actual and as planned value). In this case you might question yourself how to name these measures properly. With translations you might be tempted to give two measures the same display name (which is possible!). Without anticipating too much of the next post, I don’t recommend to do this as can be very confusing to work with such a cube.

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